Notebook, 1993-

MATERIALS & METHODS - A Perspective on Art Education - Activities for Children - Themes & Topics

Drawing & Painting -- Modeling & Sculpting

Fingerpainting -- Mural Making -- Paper-Mâché -- Puppets -- Mask-Making -- Crayon Encaustics -- Crayon Resist Drawing -- Crayon Sgraffito -- Collage -- Mobiles -- Watercolor -- Common Earth Clay -- Salt Ceramic [recipe] -- Clay / plasticene Non-hardening -- Carving in the Round -- Newspaper Modeling -- Paraffin or Wax Sculpture -- Plaster Plaques or Reliefs -- Relief in Plaster -- Relief in Soft Wood -- Repoussé -- Sandcasting -- Working With the Coping Saw or Jigsaw -- Straw/Toothpick Sculpting -- Painting on Window Glass -- Diorama -- Peep Shows -- Whittling -- Wire Sculpture

[From: [Meaning in Crafts. Mattil,, Edward L. Chairman, Dept. of Art, North Texas State University. Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1971.]

Sand Casting

Using the same principles as described for plaster relief, it is possible to make larger, but somewhat less refined, cast pieces of great charm. The main difference lies in the material in which the initial form is impressed or carved. First, some type of container made of flat wood, like the kind fresh cherries are packed in, lined with something to keep the sand from sifting through is needed (a plastic drycleaner's bag glued to the inside of the box will serve very well). A quantity of bank sand --a type that is fine and that packs firmly together when damp --is needed. Coarse granular beach sands are generally not too satisfactory. The sand is dampened and packed firmly in the box.

The carving is begun, using old spoons to remove the excess sand, and sticks and other objects to shape the desired form. The tips of the fingers are the most important tools, for they allow gentle tamping and sensitive shaping. Imaginative use of large, coarse textures, often in the form of a repeat, usually results in a more interesting piece.

When the form has been refined to the desired condition, plaster . . . . is mixed in a large container and poured into the scooped-out form. Care should be used to pour the plaster gently, so that none of the form is washed away. A far more permanent casting can be made by using a dry, ready-mixed cement instead of the plaster. There are great advantages to this type of cast, as the cement is much easier to clean up and, if the container is to be retained for future use, to remove from the bucket or can in which it is mixed. If the casting is of unusual size, some fencing wire or metal rods can be inserted in the back as a reinforcing element during the pouring process. The concrete or cement casting will be able to withstand outdoor weather, whereas plaster ones will slowly deteriorate if left outdoors.

This activity is an especially good one for playgrounds and camps, where lots of sand is to be found and where size is no problem. Concrete, unlike plaster, needs several days to set up. If work is done outdoors, the cement should be dried slowly, remaining covered with damp cloths, and out of the sunlight. After several days, the form is removed, brushed, or washed. Any kind of device for hanging should be constructed and inserted in the back of the piece while it is in a moist or semifluid state, then allowed to harden in place.

[Meaning in Crafts. Mattil,, Edward L. Chairman, Dept. of Art, North Texas State University. Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1971.]



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