Notebook, 1993- . . . . . . . . . APPROACHES

Notes for a Perspective on Art Education

See Also: Child Development and Art Activities for Children and Benefits of Art Education for Children

Notes from: Gaitskell, Charles D., Al Hurwitz, Maryland Institute College of Art, and Michael Day, Univ. of Minnesota, eds. Children and Their Art, Methods for The Elementary School, Fourth Edition, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1984.

The 6th Edition (2000): "As we discuss the visual arts in this book, we refer to the traditional 'fine arts', such as drawing, painting, printmaking, and sculpture, including more contemporary modes, such as photography, video, and computer-generated imagery; the 'applied arts' that surround us every day, such as architecture, ceramics, weaving, graphic design, illustration, interior design, and fashion design; and indigenous and contemporary 'folk arts' . . . . " - Teacher considerations in 2000 included: Professional Responsibility and Professional Associations; Historical Framework - dates, personalities, publications, events; Issues and practices, issues and topics - a balanced program; Social Dimensions, such as Collaborative and Group activities (mural, performance, games); Newer Media - ideas and earthworks; Three Aesthetic Stances: mimesis, expressionism, formalism; Criticism - establishing a language base; History - other times and places.

The newest edition: 2011. 'Children and Their Art' - Art Education for Elementary and Middle Schools. "The Ninth Edition provides updated developments in theory, research and practices, with a strong emphasis on how digital technology provides new ways of teaching art. The most comprehensive textbook available for teaching art education methods, CHILDREN AND THEIR ART covers all aspects of teaching art in the elementary and middle school classroom: the basic principles and goals of art education, the characteristics and needs of children as learners, the core principles of art as a subject--aesthetics, principles of design, art history, new developments in art media and technology. It also covers all aspects of instruction--curriculum planning, sample lessons, suggested readings, and internet resources." (

Notes from: Logan, Frederick M . Growth of Art in American Schools,New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955.

Notes from: Chapman, Laura H. Approaches to Art in Education, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978.] [1870-1920 / The Beginning of Art Education ; 1920-1940 / The Progressive Movement; 1940-1960 / Mid-Century Developments - Experimentation with materials; 1960 to 1980 / Art as a Body of Knowledge; Summary / Purposes of Art Education ]

Notes from: Efland, Arthur. "Art Education in the Twentieth Century: A History of Ideas." In Framing the Past: Essays on Art Education, eds. Soucy, Donald, and Mary Ann Stankiewicz, Reston, Virginia: National Art Education Association, 1990.

Notes from: Bolin, Paul E. "The Massachusetts Drawing Act of 1870: Industrial Mandate or Democratic Maneuver?" In Framing the Past: Essays on Art Education.Soucy, Donald, and Mary Ann Stankiewicz. Reston, Virginia: National Art Education Association 1990.

Notes from: Amburgy, Patricia M. "Culture for the Masses." In Framing the Past: Essays on Art Education, eds. Soucy, Donald, and Mary Ann Stankiewicz, Reston, Virginia: National Art Education Association, 1990. [At the Turn of the 20th Century]

Notes from: Korzenik, Diana. "A Developmental History of Art Education." In Framing the Past: Essays on Art Education, eds. Soucy, Donald, and Mary Ann Stankiewicz, Reston, Virginia: National Art Education Association, 1990.

Notes from: Macdonald, Stuart. The History and Philosophy of Art Education, London, University of London Press, 1970.] [In Ancient Egypt - Greek and Roman philosophy - Mediaeval - Academies in Italy - French Academies - London - The United States - In the Elementary Schools]

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Under Construction

"Real Presences" argues what is, in many ways, a very old-fashioned position: that the sacred inheres in great art, and that refusing to recognize this sacred dimension diminishes both the art work and one's satisfaction from it . . . . " [Feeney - "Tilting at cultural windmills"]

"Creativity is popularly related to innovation and new ideas. This invention-cognition view of creativity is too narrow a concept for artistic creativity. Artistic creation is also about reproducing traditions and emotional ("affective") processes. Widespread use of the popular invention-cognition view of creativity in arts advocacy obscures wider dimensions of artistic creativity. This article focuses attention on the affective dimension of artistic creation . . . . " - (Christopher Madden and Taryn Bloom - International Journal of Cultural Policy)

"A public opinion survey conducted for the National Cultural Alliance shows that Americans overwhelmingly understand the value of the humanities and arts to themselves as individuals, to their communities and to American society. [Research & Forecast, Inc., a national public opinion and market research consulting firm - funded by The Getty Grant Program.]

"Of all the concepts that we lean on in our discipline, "creativity" is, perhaps, the most overused and least understood . . . . In short , we are driven by our appreciation of outcomes and end products, rather than by a concern to promote inner habits of mind. Curiously, in all our talk of creativity we rarely, if ever, acknowledge the imagination or that activity of mind which, more than any other, may be seen to underpin real acts of personal creation. For it is the imagination, moreover, that allows us to play with ideas, draw new conclusions, test them in thought and action, and transform what is empirically given to us in our world into our own personal symbolic realities. The imagination is one of human kind's most precious capacities, one to which we need to give a privileged place in our schools. However, it is much easier to get children to "produce" outcomes in the name of creativity than it is to promote those quiet reflective capacities of mind which drive imaginative thought and action in the development of personal ideas. For if the imagination is to do its work, it must be calibrated to a nuanced set of understandings about the materials of art through which inner ideas can be shaped and externally expressed. To do this well means that we must not inhibit children by imposing on their products adult artistic conventions, or mercurial notions of "performance" creativity." (Burton, 'Art Education and the Plight of Culture' - Status Report, 1992)

Gardner, H. & Perkins, D. [Eds.]. [1988]. Art, mind, and education: Research from Project Zero. Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press. 173 pages. ISBN 0-252-06080-6. - "This insightful collection of research essays addresses the rapid growth of theories of cognitive development that , in this reviewer's opinion, have had significant impact on arts education in the US today. . . . ." [Hopkins] - Review

Geir Kaufmann - Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 2004 - "It is argued that the concept of creativity is too loosely defined, and too much driven from a bottom-up operationalist view. It is also argued that current popular definitions of creativity, by focusing on novelty and appropriateness, do not distinguish the concept of creativity in a satisfactory way from standard definitions of the concept of intelligence, which also focus on novelty and appropriateness as key defining features. . . . ."

"Professional Criticism in the Secondary Classroom: Opposing Judgments of Contemporary Art Enhance the Teaching of Art Criticism." [Sun-Young Lee - In Art Education. May 1993.]

"Culture and Motivation" [Ruth Benedict] - "In this selection she described how great, in her opinion, is the wealth of possible human motivations, and indicated that each culture selects for emphasis only a few of the motives that can activate mankind. . . . . "

Tanner, J. M. "Sequence, Tempo, and Individual Variation in the Growth and Development of Boys and Girls aged Twelve to Sixteen" - The Nature of the New Cognitive Competence, in Daedalus, 12-16. Fall, 1974. [Selections from the reading]

'Drawing for the Schools' , A Conference, January 14, 1983, Maryland Institute, Collage of Art, Baltimore, MD, Editor: Dr. Al Hurwitz, Chairman, Art Teacher Education Department. [Robert Kaupelis, Brent and Marjorie Wilson, Keith Gentle, Harold McWhinnie ]

"Philosophical Inquiry: A Practical Approach to Aesthetics." [Henry, Carole. In Art Education. May 1993]

Notes from: The Arts in Schools: Principles, Practice and Provision. London : Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 1982. "Children, Teachers and Artists"[Developing important relationships between children, teachers and artists. ]; "Arts Education and Cultural Heritage"; "Arts Education and Cultural Heritage"; "The Arts in Primary Schools"; "The Arts in Secondary Schools"

Art in Education: An International Perspective. Ott, Robert W. and Al Hurwitz, eds. University Park and London, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1984. - Egypt - China - Poland - Africa - Middle East and South Asia - Afghanistan - Western Europe - England - The Netherlands

"Art seeks the beautiful thing, but not only and not merely; Art is also power - power not only to transform the face of the page, but the quality of our lives." [Peter London, "Art as Transformation" in 'Art Education' - Reston, VA: NAEA. Volume 45, No2., May 1992. pp. 8-15]

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Under Construction

What are they Teaching Art Students These Days? [ARTnews Online - April 2003] ------ "America 2000" [Marshall] ------ "An Age of Agendas" [Hamblen} ------ "The Arts and Education Reform" [Riley] ------ "Art Education and the Plight of the Culture: A Status Report" [Burton] ------ "Child Training Practices and Achievement Motivation" [McClellan and Friedman] ------ "On building Learning Communities" [Brandt] ------ "Cognitive Styles Across Cultures" [Okonji] ------ "20 Ways to Communicate the Value of the Arts" [Johnson - NAEA. 1992.] ------ "A Consortium for School Networking" ------ "Frameworks for Understanding Art: The Function of Comparative Art Contexts and Verbal Cues." [Koroscik, Short, Stavropoulos, Fortin] ------ "Affiliation, Social Context, Industriousness, and Achievement" [Gallimore] ------ "Cognitive Consequences of Cultural Opportunity" [Nerlove and Snipper] ------ "The Cultural Context of Learning and Thinking, An exploration in Experimental Anthropology" [ Michael Cole, John Gay, Joseph A. Glick, Donald W. Sharp] ------ "The Culture of time and Space, 1880-1918" [Kern] ------ "Culture and Achievement Motivation: A Second Look" [Maehr and Nicholls in Studies in Cross-Cultural Psychology] ------ "Four conceptually different curriculum models have emerged from Project 2061" ------ "Readings in Art Education" [Eisner and Ecker ] ------ "The Arts, Human Development, and Education" [Eisner] ------ "Research Pertaining to the Gifted in Art" [Salome] ------ On Going to Art School / "An Art School that also Taught Life" [Russell, NY Times] ------ "The Effect of Contrasting Instructional Strategies on Seventh-Grade Students' [Brewer] ------ "Patterns of Intention - On The Historical Explanation of Pictures" [Baxandall] ------ Index of Judging Criteria for: Vocal and Instrumental Music, Music / Jazz, Specifications for Content of Audiotape, Dance, Theater ----- 'Research on Perceiving and Responding to Art" [Salome] ------ Perspectives on Children Influential to Developmental Theory & Education [based upon Zigler & Finn-Stevensen 1987, and Coon 1989] ------ "Philosophy of Art Education: Focusing Our Vision" [Lankford] ------ "Physical, Aesthetic, Symbolic Education: An Analog" [Thompson] ------ "Pictorial Depth Perception in African Groups" [Cross-Cultural Studies of Perception] ------ "Dumbing Down Art in America" [Swanger on Popular Culture, 1993] ------ "The High School Student's Guide to Portfolio Preparation" [Presented by The Consortium of East Coast Art Schools, 1986] ------ "Qualitative inquiry in education: The continuing debate" [Eisner & Peshkin, 1990] ------ "Issues and Practices Related to Identification of Gifted and Talented Students in the Visual Arts" and "Research Pertaining to the Gifted in Art." [Salome] ------ "The Relationship of Grouping Practices to the Education of the Gifted and Talented Learner" [Rogers] ------ "Gaining Sight of America's Children" [Gene Carter: "American education needs to make the connection between school readiness and success in school to achieve systemic, lasting change"] ------ Arts Advocate: Barbara Jordan ------ "Opening Up Assessment" [Wolf] ------ "The Art Teacher in the Secondary School" [Lowenfeld and Brittain] ------ "A Balanced Comprehensive Art Curriculum Makes Sense" [Tollifson] ---- "Why the Arts are Essential" [Bennett] ------ "An Art Curriculum for All Students" [Brickell, Jones, and Runyan] ------ "On Discipline-Based Art Education: A Conversation with Elliot Eisner" [Brandt] ------ "New Jersey Overhauls Arts Curriculum" [Ylisela in Curriculum Review, 1990] ------ "On Assessment in the Arts: A Conversation with Howard Gardner" [Brandt] ------ "The Creataive Process of Self-Appraisal" ------ Criteria for Evaluation of Works ------ A focus on Classroom Dialogue [from Smith, 'Experience & Art'] ----- Proposal for Judging Criteria / Scholastic Awards: [Burton] ------ "Developing Minds: Beginnings of Artistic Language; The First Visual Symbols; Visual Events" [Burton, 1980] ------ "Port Authority [NYC] Opens Trade Center to Select Painters" [Hoffman, 1998] ------ "Beyond Paradigms: Art Education Theory and Practice in a Postparadigmatic World" [Pearse] ------ "Issues and Practices Related to Identification of Gifted and Talented Students in the Visual Arts" [Salome] ------ "When I Draw The Lord He'll Be a Real Big Man" in Children of Crisis [Coles] ------ Vieth, Ken. "Famous Artist Chairs Project" / Chair as metaphors for support, comfort and visually interesting structures, we agreed art can be seen as a resting place in a chaotic world [Ken Vieth, 'School Arts'] ------ "Art History and Young Children " [Marianne Saccardi , 'School Arts'] ------ "Wild about Fauvism" [Christine Mulcahey Szyba, 'School Arts'] ------ 'Art and Identity: Elizabeth Catlett' [Melanie. Herzog, 'School Arts'] ------ Standards in the Visual Arts [NAEA News, 1992-93] ------ "Research Pertaining to the Gifted in Art." [Salome] ------ "The Relationship of Grouping Practices to the Education of the Gifted and Talented Learner" [Rogers, 1992] ------ Individuation - Social Integration [Herbert Read] ------ "Apples and Oranges" in The Way it Spozed to Be' [Herndon] ------ Working In And Through The Group/Pre-adolescents ------ "Technology Education Seen as a 'New Basic'" [Willis]



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