Notebook, 1993-

MATERIALS & METHODS - A Perspective on Art Education - Activities for Children - Themes & Topics

Drawing & Painting -- Modeling & Sculpting

Fingerpainting -- Mural Making -- Paper-Mâché -- Puppets -- Mask-Making -- Crayon Encaustics -- Crayon Resist Drawing -- Crayon Sgraffito -- Collage -- Mobiles -- Watercolor -- Common Earth Clay -- Salt Ceramic [recipe] -- Clay / plasticene Non-hardening -- Carving in the Round -- Newspaper Modeling -- Paraffin or Wax Sculpture -- Plaster Plaques or Reliefs -- Relief in Plaster -- Relief in Soft Wood -- Repoussé -- Sandcasting -- Working With the Coping Saw or Jigsaw -- Straw/Toothpick Sculpting -- Painting on Window Glass -- Diorama -- Peep Shows -- Whittling -- Wire Sculpture

[From: [Meaning in Crafts. Mattil,, Edward L. Chairman, Dept. of Art, North Texas State University. Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1971.]


Repoussé is relief modeling in thin metal. It has been an art form for thousands of years, and examples can be found in almost any culture where metal has been generally available. The earliest examples were often of gold, but any metals soft enought to shape have been used. Frequently Repoussé was used to decorate utilitarian objects, such as armor for warriors, drinking cups, and so forth. For children to do Repoussé successfully, they should be motivated to express something rather than merely to learn another process.

Work in metal foils involves a whole new set of problems and solutions. First, the manipulation of metal is unlike any other craft experience; second, the project is worked on from the reverse side of the metal. Metal foils, such as copper, aluminum, and brass, can be purchased from most school or art supply stores. They may be sold either by size or by weight; aluminum is the lightest, least expensive, and easiest to work with, though usually the least attractive when finished.

This project can begin with crayon drawings of whatever experience has been chosen to be illustrated, perhaps "playing with a pet" or "playing games at recess." The crayon drawing must be less detailed than a pencil drawing, and may thus be more adaptable to the foil. When th drawings are ready and their aptness discussed by teacher and child, the piece of foil is placed directly beneath the drawing, which is traced over with a pencil point in order to leave an impression on the foil. Now the child turns the foil over and presses parts of the drawing out slowly and carefully by placing the foil on a stack of newspapers and rubbing over the part with a blunt stick. A tongue depressor split lengthwise makes an excellent tool for this purpose.

Some areas may be pushed out quite far, while others remain fairly shallow. The depth of the depression depends upon the amount of pressure applied to the stick and the number of times the area is gone over. When the child has pushed the entire design out, he may turn the foil over and do some work on the top side. He may improve some areas by creating textured surfaces where they have not been pushed out or raised; he may do this by finding something to tamp with, such as a nailhead, pencil point, bobby pin, or other small item.

The back can be filled with soft modeling clay to prevent any raised surface from being pressed in if it is accdientally pushed or bumped. The finishd foil can be fastened to a piece of plywood or wallboard; carpet tacks or gimp nails can be used to fasten it on wood. The child can polish the foil with steel wool and stain and wax the wood or paint the wall board.

With proper motivation, students should be able to avoid stereotyped subject matter.

[Meaning in Crafts. Mattil,, Edward L. Chairman, Dept. of Art, North Texas State University. Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1971.]



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