Notebook, 1993-

NOTES on: Child Development

Motor Development 0-18 Months -- Ainsworth's Phases of Attachment -- The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale -- Drawing Sequence / Evolution of Spontaneous Abilities -- Erick Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Dilemma -- Selman's Role-Taking Levels -- Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development -- Language Development -- Parten's Play Stages -- Piaget's Cognitive Stages -- Piaget's - Cognitive Operations -- Contrasting Characteristics of Prenatal and Postnatal Life -- Stages of Prenatal Development

Notes from: Coon, Dennis. Introduction to Psychology, Exploration and Application. St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1989; Zigler, Edward F. and Matia Finn-Stevensen, Yale University. Children, Development and Social Issues, D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA & Toronto, 1987.

Piaget's Cognitive

[Concrete Operations Stage]
7-11 Years of age

The child can mentally transform, modify, or otherwise manipulate what is seen or heard according to logical rules. But only on concrete and tangible objects or on signs of these objects (as in word problems)--not in hypothetical ideas. Learns to add, subtract, multiply and divide. Aware that one mental activity is related to another--Can reverse the process. Can mentally manipulate information--is operational. Able to approach problem solving in a more precise and logical manner--having acquired these mental abilities:

Ability to perform mental inversions, or to mentally undo a sequence of actions. This enhances ability to figure out mathematical problems, and draw conclusions about observed outcomes on the basis of prior relationships--not just concrete or tangible appearances. This evidences sensitivity to distinctions between what seems to be and what really is.

The child can focus on multiple features of an object at the same time. Takes into account all relevant perceptual data and can focus on both the height and the width of the glass at the same time.

Ability to recognize that a change in one feature is balanced by an equal and opposite change in another. The length in one row is compensated for by the density of the other row.

The ability to recognize that two equal quantities remain equal even if one is changed in some way--as long as nothing has been added or taken away. Is not evident all at once, but emerges gradually over three stages. Gradually acquires the ability to conserve number, length, mass, area, weight, and volume of objects and substances--although not all the properties of objects and substances at one time, because these abilities emerge in sequence.

The Concept of Number
One to one correspondence. May do a lot of re-counting at first.

An understanding of "more than" and "less than" and of the fact that one number is included in another. That # 2 is part of # 3, which in turn is included in #4. Ability to understand that there is a hierarchical relationship between subordinate and superordinate classes. This has far-reaching implications in understanding of the social world and the multiple roles people play, and it also enhances the ability to learn such subjects as geography

The ability to arrange objects in an orderly series--it demonstrates systematic, planful thinking on the part of the child. Helps the child construct a logical view of reality. Able to engage in transitive reasoning.

Transitive reasoning
The ability to recognize a relationship between two objects by knowing their relationship to a third.

Information Processing

Selective Attention
The ability to focus on relevant aspects of the environment and to disregard irrelevant aspects.

Ability to pay attention to a task enhances children's capacity for memory. Child can build upon what she already knows, and this aids her ability to solve problems and acquire new knowledge.

The grouping of items to be remembered into groups or clusters of information. Can remember more words in a list because of the ability to organize.

An intuitive understanding of how the memory works--acquired during middle childhood school years.

Metalinguistic Awareness
Enables the child to think about language which increases the child's communicative competence.

Communicative Competence
An ability to think about what one is being told and to judge whether the message being conveyed is clear. Acquire ability to understand complex grammatical sentences and, as well, more precise meaning of words and their correct use.

The underlying grammatical rules that specify the order and function of words in a sentence, develops throughout the middle childhood years as the child becomes better able to understand the connections between words.

Understanding Metaphors
Language also becomes increasingly nonliteral--to understand that some words have a literal as well as a nonliteral meaning. A metaphor relies on the use of a word or a phrase out of context to suggest an unexpected similarity. Sweet and bright, for example.

Love to engage in play on words and to tell jokes that involve double meanings.

NOTE: Uneveness in Development. Some researchers claim that cognitive growth does not occur in stages all at once, as each individual possesses a number of abilities, each at different levels of development. Within each stage there are gradual and transitional changes which occur at different times depending on the particular abilities (Flavell, 1985).

[Notes from: Coon, Dennis. Introduction to Psychology, Exploration and Application. St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1989; Zigler, Edward F. and Matia Finn-Stevensen, Yale University. Children, Development and Social Issues, D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA & Toronto, 1987.]



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