Notebook, 1993-

NOTES on: Child Development

Motor Development 0-18 Months -- Ainsworth's Phases of Attachment -- The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale -- Drawing Sequence / Evolution of Spontaneous Abilities -- Erick Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Dilemma -- Selman's Role-Taking Levels -- Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development -- Language Development -- Parten's Play Stages -- Piaget's Cognitive Stages -- Piaget's - Cognitive Operations -- Contrasting Characteristics of Prenatal and Postnatal Life -- Stages of Prenatal Development

Notes from: Coon, Dennis. Introduction to Psychology, Exploration and Application. St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1989; Zigler, Edward F. and Matia Finn-Stevensen, Yale University. Children, Development and Social Issues, D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA & Toronto, 1987.

Erick Erikson's
Psychosocial Dilemma

Trust vs. Mistrust [1st year] Identity vs. Role Confusion [12-18] Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt [2-3] Initiative vs. Guilt [3-6] Industry vs. Inferiority [6-12] Intimacy vs. Isolation [Young Adulthood]
Generativity vs. Stagnation [Middle Age] Integrity vs. Despair [Old Age]

Stage one, First Year of Life: Trust vs Mistrust. [Interaction with the mother. A stage that depends on predictability and on love & nurturance.*] Children are completely dependent on others during the first stage of life. A basic attitude of trust (Established when babies are given adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical care--encouraged by the same conditions that help babies become securely attached to their parents) or mistrust is formed at this time. Mistrust is caused by inadequate or unpredictable care and by parents who are cold, indifferent, or rejecting.

Stage Two, 1-3 Years; Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt.. [Interaction with parents. With a solid base of predictability, child moves out to develop physically and emotionally, and to become autonomous. Parents provide a safe environment in which they can have confidence in child's ability to explore, and let go--and child needs to know that the parents are there and that it may return to stable place they trust. This is where self-esteem begins. This is where most language development begins--cognitive activity. And real mixed messages. "No" means they have autonomy, some control, but may mean "yes". A child will internalize expressions of doubts from others.*] Children's growing self-control is expressed by climbing, touching, exploring, and a general desire to do things for themselves. Parents help foster a sense of autonomy by encouraging children to try new skills. Parents who ridicule their children (spilling, falling, wetting, and other "accidents" often result from child's crude efforts) or overprotect them, may cause them to feel shame and to doubt their abilities.

Stage Three, 3-5 Years; Initiative vs Guilt.. [Interaction with peers, pre-school. P l a y. Goal directed. Feedback of others is a key. Goals need to be reinforced and valued by others. More purposeful action, more complex, self-direction. Adults must gage ways to facilitate and not stifle this important period of play activity.*] The child moves from simple self-control to an ability to take initiative. Learns through play to plan and to undertake, and carry out, a task. Parents reinforce initiative by giving the child the freedom to play, to ask questions, to use imagination, and to choose activities. Otherwise - if criticized severely, or prevented from play, or discouraged - child may learn to feel guilty about the activities s/he initiates.

Stage Four, 6-12 Years: Industry vs Inferiority.. {Interaction at School. Work. Responsibility. Externally imposed structure inters in--external expectations. Important to reinforce effort --individual effort, not just excellence. Acknowledgment that the child tried. *] Many of the events of middle childhood are symbolized by that fateful day when you first entered school. With dizzying speed your world expanded beyond your family, and you faced a whole series of new challenges. For the first time teachers, classmates, and adults outside the home become as important as parents in shaping attitudes toward oneself. In school, children begin to learn skills valued by society, and success or failure can have lasting effects on their feelings of adequacy. Children learn a sense of industry if they win praise for building, painting, cooking, reading, studying, and other productive activities. If a child's efforts are regarded as messy, childish, or inadequate, feeling of inferiority result.

Stage Five, Adolescence: Identity Versus Role Confusion. [ Interaction with Peers. The only people who count are the peers. Transition into adulthood. Physiological evolution--hormone storm. The challenge of social issues and time when there are biggest risks and biggest price. Before the 1860's, when education became mandated, once one became a teenager one was an adult.] Adolescence is a turbulent time for many persons in our culture. Caught between childhood and adulthood, the adolescent faces some unique problems. Erikson considers a need to answer the question, "Who am I?" the primary task during this stage of life. Mental and physical maturation brings to the individual new feelings, a new body, and new attitudes. The adolescent must build a consistent identity out of self-perceptions and relationships with others. Conflicting experiences as a student, friend, athlete, worker, son or daughter, lover, and so forth, must be integrated into a unified sense of self. According to Erikson, persons who fail to develop a sense of identity suffer from role confusion, an uncertainty about who they are and where they are going.

Stage Six, Young Adulthood: Intimacy Versus Isolation. Individual experiences a need to achieve an essential quality of intimacy (an ability to care about others and to share experiences with them)in his or her life. After establishing a stable identity, a person is prepared to share meaningful love or deep friendship with others. 75% of college-age men and women rank a good marriage and family life as their primary adult goal (Bachman & Johnson, 1979). And yet, marriage or sexual involvement is no guarantee that intimacy will prevail: Many adult relationships remain superficial and unfulfilling. Failure to establish intimacy with others leads to a deep sense of isolation. The person feels alone and uncared for in life. This circumstance often sets the stage for later difficulties.

Stage Seven, Middle Adulthood: Generativity Versus Stagnation. According to Erikson, an interest in guiding the next generation is the main source of balance in mature adulthood. This quality, called generativity, is expressed by caring about oneself, one's children, and the future. Generativity may be achieved by guiding one's own children or by helping other children (as a teacher, clergyman, or coach, for example). It may also be achieved through productive or creative work. In any case, a person's concern and energies must be broadened to include the welfare of others and of society as a whole .. Failure in this is marked by a stagnant concern with one's own needs and comforts. Life loses meaning, and the person feels bitter, dreary, and trapped.

Stage Eight, Late Adulthood: Integrity Versus Despair. Because old age is a time of reflection, a person must be able to look back over the events of a lifetime with a sense of acceptance and satisfaction. According to Erikson, the previous seven stages of life become the basis for successful aging. The person who has lived richly and responsibly develops a sense of integrity. This allows the person to face aging and death with dignity. If previous life events are viewed with regret, the elderly person falls into despair. In this case, there is a feeling that life has been a series of missed opportunities, that one has failed, and that it is to late to reverse what has been done. Aging and the threat of death then become a source of fear and depression.

[Notes from: Coon, Dennis. Introduction to Psychology, Exploration and Application. St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1989; Zigler, Edward F. and Matia Finn-Stevensen, Yale University. Children, Development and Social Issues, D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA & Toronto, 1987.]



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