Notebook, 1993-


POTTERY AND PORCELAIN - Glossary - A List of Museums and Galleries - Ceramics - [A materials resource site with links]

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Pottery & Porcelain - Austrian

At Vienna Claudius Innocentius Du Paquier, assisted by Christoph Conrad Hunger from Meissen and Samuel Stoelzel, an arcanist Meissen, founded his own factory in 1717. He started by producing tableware derived from silver shapes, decorated with Chinese motifs and exotic flowers. About 1725 German flowers and European subjects were introduced in colours and in Schwarzlot, a black monochrome heightened with gold. This technique, used earlier by Johann Schaper, of Nuremberg, for the decoration of glass and pottery, was first applied to porcelain by Daniel Preissler [1636-1733] in Silesia, whence it became characteristic feature of Vienna ware. Du Paquier figures formed at first parts of vessels only, supports, handles, or finials but gained independence about 1730 and came into their own. The mingling of rustic pottery tradition with the urbanity of Meissen models gives these wide-eyed figures an air of wondering surprise at their own appearance in crinolines rather than in peasant skirts.

Financial difficulties forced Du Paquier to sell his factory to the State in 1744., when a complete reorganization took place. At that time the Vienna mark, a shield incised or, more often, in underglaze blue, was first introduced. New findings of kaolin in Hungary [1749] and sound management finally brought prosperity to the enterprise. L. Dannhauser and J. J. Niedermeyer modeled figures of great charm, imparting the rhythmic grace of Austrian rococo to courtiers and market vendors alike. During the latter part of the century the transition to classicism took place under the direction of Konrad von Sorgenthal [1784-1805]. Tableware in the manner of Sèvres has coloured grounds and gold decoration of restrained design, including medallions with portraits or landscapes. Figures of the period are often formed in biscuit to reproduce the effect of antique marbles. These figures are clad in stylized Greek gowns, and their timid character seems due to a certain slackening of creative power. However, the factory carried on until 1864. [p. 416]

[L. G. G. Ramsey, F.S.A., ed. The Complete Color Encyclopedia of Antiques. Preface by Bevis Hillier, Editor of The Connoisseur. Compiled by The Connoisseur, London. New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc. 1962. Revised and Expanded Edition.]



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