Notebook, 1993-


POTTERY AND PORCELAIN - Glossary - A List of Museums and Galleries - Ceramics - [A materials resource site with links]

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Pottery & Porcelain - American (cont.)

Nothing approached the popularity of creamware, or lasted longer. Its inventor Josiah Wedgwood called this [1767] 'the Cream colour, alias Queensware, alias Ivory'.

John Bartlem or Bartlam ['one of our insolvent master potters', complained Wedgwood in 1765, who was hiring hands to go to his 'new Pottworks in South Carolina'] was producing creamware by 1771 at Charleston. Messrs Bartlam & Co. in October 1770 had opened a manufactory on Meeting-street, 'the proper Hands &c. for carrying it on having lately arrived here from England'. Three months later it 'already makes what is called Queen's Ware, equal to any imported'. But a grant of £500 from the Assembly did not save it from disastrous labour troubles.

William Ellis, one of the Bartlam workmen, appeared in December 1773 at Salem, North Carolina, where Brother Aust's diary said 'he understands how to glaze and burn Queens Ware'. The Moravians built a suitable kiln, and the following May 'Ellis made a burning of Queensware'. He departed the same year and in 1783 Wedgwood referred to this Ellis as now 'of Hanley' [Staffordshire], calling him the sole survivor of Bartlam's enterprise.

Philadelphia became the centre of creamware manufacture. Here in 1792 the Pennsylvania Society for Encouragement of Manufactures and the Useful Arts offered a $50 prize for specimens 'approaching nearest to queen's-ware'. John Curtis, having dissolved the partnership of Curtis & Roat in July 1790, continued with 'the cream-color'd' from 1791 to 1811 at his Pottery-Ware Manufactory in Front Street, Southwark. Three others soon appeared: Alexander Trotter [who in 1809 had 'lately established a Queens-ware pottery on an extensive scale'; the Colombian Pottery'; Daniel Freytag [maker in 1810-11 of a 'fine earthenware, the paste resembling queen's-ware']; and David G. Seixas [producing from 1816 a cream-colour 'similar to the Liverpool'].

In New York 'a new Cream Ware Manufactory' was established in 1798 at Red Hook Landing, where J. Mouchet made Tivoli Ware 'with colored edges'. Nor had Alexander Trotter retired in 1812-13 [Spargo, p. 180], but reappeared 1815 in Pittsburgh, with Trotter & Co. advertising 'Queensware similar to the Philadelphia'.

The undiminishing popularity of this ware is reflected [American Collector, June 1940, p . 11] by one item in a ship's list of 1827: '532 doz. ordinary quality dinner plates, cream colored or blue and green edges', in a shipment of mixed pottery from Liverpool to Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

Another decade later, the Staffordshire potter James Clews arrived in 1836 at Louisville, Kentucky, where creamware had been made since 1830 by the Lewis Pottery Co. With the backing of Vodrey & Lewis, Clews built a large factory downriver at Troy. Indiana, and the first kiln of the new Indiana Pottery Co. was fired in June 1837. A blue-printed snuff jar with the mark Clew's Manufacturer's is a good sample of the ware made here only in 1837-8, Clews then returning to England because the local clays proved disappointing.

After that time, fine creamware was scarcely heard of, though poor and coarser wares of cream or ivory colour were widely made, e.g. the 'attempts at cream colored' reported 1850-1900 at the Shaker colony in Amana, Iowa. The Bennett Pottery might be listed in 1847 in the Pittsburgh directory as 'makers of domestic Queensware', but through the Ohio country this name was understood to mean a cream-bodied earthenware with rich brown glaze.

This was the common utility ware made by everyone from the 1840s to 1900, a yellowware dappled or streaked with lustrous manganese brown glaze. Its quality ranged from coarse splatterred yellow to a rich brown tortoiseshell, and this ware was used for every sort of article, doorknobs or pudding pans, hound-handled jugs or lamp bases, cuspidors or picture frames.

Little was marked, and 'Bennington' as a generic name is wrongly applied to wares the bulk of which were made elsewhere, principally at East Liverpool and down the Ohio River, or by the Bennetts of Pittsburgh and Baltimore, by a hundred factories large and small. At Bennington Julius Norton first made Rockingham or 'flint' glaze [as it was generally called] in 1841. Henderson had produced it in 1829: 'Flint Ware both embossed and plain', in what the New York Commercial Advertiser called 'elegant pitchers . . . in a new style [which] if not too cheap will be accounted handsome'.

As an improvement on quiet brown Rockingham, a brilliant glaze flecked and streaked with colours was patented by Lyman, Fenton & Co. in November 1849 and examples carried a special Fenton''s Enamel mark [Spargo, The A.B.C., p. 21, mark D]. Oddly, this 1849 [p. 409] mark is found also on common Rockingham, or even on white Parian, and continued in use all through the U.S. Pottery Co. period [1853-8]

This colour-flecked glaze was not new; Fenton's patent referred only to a way of producing it with powdered colours. If a hot-water urn and the famous lion are examples of the best Bennington work, Fenton's enamel was widely pirated, being produced at East Liverpool as early as 1852 [Ramsay, p. 76]. Pairs of Bennington lions in plain Rockingham or 1849 enamel, made with or without the platform and showing either a curly or the sanded 'coleslaw' mane, appeared 1851-2 and are attributed to Daniel Greatbach, though he did not arrive at Bennington until December 1851 or January 1852, remaining as chief modeller until the factory closed [Spargo, Bennington Potters, pp. 227-8].

Printed Wares
Doubtless because the Staffordshire and Liverpool makers supplied such a torrent of cheap and attractive printed pottery, in an endless range of patterns and colours, the development of printed wares made scarcely a beginning here. True, a 'rolling press, for copper-plate printing; and other articles made use of in the China Factory' were advertised August 1774 when the Bonnin & Morris properties were offered. Apparently it was their intention to produce Worcester-type porcelains with printed blue decoration, but no examples are known today, if indeed they were made at all.

Not until 1839-43 are American-made subjects encountered [Clement, Our Pioneer Potters, Plates 10-13], all four from the Henderson works, which since 1833 had been called the American Pottery Manufacturing Co.

In 1839 the pattern Canova was printed in light blue, cribbed from a design by John Ridgway of Hanley. The United States eagle and shield occurs on 6 1/2-inch [16.5 cm] jugs also in light blue. In transfer print with added colours, the Landing of Gen-Lafayette/at Castle Garden, New York/16th August 1824 is seen on a large jug and footed punch bowl at the New York Historical Society, the same jug with a 15 1/2-inch [39.4 cm] oval cistern appearing No. 243 in the Van Sweringen sale of 1938 at Parke-Bernet Galleries. In Antiques, May 1931, p. 361, this view is assigned to 1843, when historic Castle Garden [formerly Fort Clinton] was leased to Christopher Heiser.

A black-printed W. H. Harrison memorial jug was made in 1841, when the ninth president died after one month in the White House. Below the repeated portraits of Harrison [from the J.R. Lambdin portrait, engraved by R. W. Dodson and published 1836] is shown the American eagle; above is the 'log cabin' symbol of the Harrison-Tyler presidential campaign, with The Ohio Farmer. When the same subject was issued a year before, during that campaign against the New York aristocrat Martin Van Brenu, the log cabin was lettered To Let in 1841.

The cabin so lettered, and the portrait entitled Harrison & Reform, occur on Staffordshire teaware or copper-lustred mugs, the former marked , an importer who advertised 30 October 1840 that he was expecting 'supplies of ware with Harrison and Log Cabin engravings, from designs sent out to the Potteries by himself' [Antiques, June 1944, p. 295, and February 1945, p. 120].

The Henderson jug carries a black-printed mark AM. POTTERY/MANUFgCo/JERSEY CITY, and for it [says Lura W. Watkins] 'printing plates were executed by Thomas Pollock, an American engraver'.

Slightly earlier [1837-8] is a blue-printed creamware jar for snuff made to order of Hezekiah Starr, a tobacconist at No. 27 Calvert Street, Baltimore. It has the mark Clew's Manufacturer's.

James Clews the English potter had a factory at Cobridge[Burslem] which 'was noted for its cream-colored ware' in the 1820s, but to American collectors is chiefly known as a source of transfer-printed pottery showing American historical views. When the J. & R. Clews factory closed in 1836, James [c. 1786-1856] came to America and at Louisville, Kentucky, found the firm Vodrey & Lewis, makers [p. 410] of creamware since 1829.

Clews, being 'a man of fine presence and a fluent talker', persuaded Jacob Lewis and others to back him; the Louisville factory was closed, and a new Indiana Pottery Company established in January 1837 across the river at Troy, Indiana. Neither the workmen nor the Ohio River Valley clays suited him, and after disappointing efforts to make creamware in 1837-8 he returned to England. The factory under various proprietors made yellow and Rockingham wares until finally demolished in 1875.

A pot for Macabau, Scotch & Rapee SNUFF is probably not unlike those creamware 'pickle, pomatum & druggist pots' made in 1798 by J. Mouchet in New York. Another nearer its own time and area is the 10-inch [25.4 cm] brown-glazed jar, also found in Indiana, made for the tobacconist H. Thayer and carrying the mark of a Cincinnati maker Franklin Factory/1834/S. Quigley/S. Quigley [Antiques, August 1928, p. 162].

Only one more example of American printed ware deserves mention, a late blue platter, Pickett's Charge, Gettysburg[Ramsay, Fig. 86], with oak-leaf border picturing four generals who served that day in July 1863. Its blue eagle mark is for Edwin Bennett of Baltimore, who worked in 1841 at East Liverpool with his brother James [he was formerly with Clews at Troy] and from 1846 operated his own factory in Baltimore. His appeared in 1870 and was re-issued in 1901.

Late Wares
It might be felt that Rogers Groups have no place here, being not of fired clay but plaster casts taken from clay models. But in their day these enormously popular figure groups were fondly accepted as ceramic sculpture, an 'art' expression that filled bare space in the Victorian parlour. And indeed they exerted a large influence upon potters who then produced Parian or other figure work.

John Rogers [1829-1904] created his patented story-telling groups in New York, from 1859 to 1893. Cast in reddish plaster and painted a sad putty colour, these low-priced groups were issued in vast editions, in 1886 The Elder's Daughter 'weight 100 lbs packed, price $12]. If sentimental, obvious, and sometimes silly, the subjects were well modelled; and their themes were from the Civil War, from domestic life of the time, or popular legends. Collections may now be studied at the New York Historical Society and at the Essex Institute, Salem.

During this same period, a new pottery called majolica won wide favour; a coarse earthen body with coloured lead glazes, it appeared in useful wares, leaf-shaped dishes, and ornamental work of every description. In 1851 Minton had exhibited majolica at the Crystal Palace, and Wedgwood was producing it by 1860. Meanwhile, American potters adopted it; Edwin Bennett by 1853 at Baltimore, and Carr & Morrison of New York in 1853-5. In the 1880s it was a staple of potters everywhere, from the Hampshire Pottery [James Taft's] at Keene, New Hampshire, to the Bennett and Morley firms in East Liverpool. Best known is Etruscan majolica, made in 1879-90 by Griffen, Smith & Hill at Phoenixville, Chester County, Pennsylvania.

An excellent Example of Etruscan majolica in the Brooklyn Museum shows surprising likeness to the 'Colly flower tea pots' imported a century earlier [Boston, 1771]. Developed in 1754-9 by Wedgwood when a junior partner to Whieldon, cauliflower ware had a vogue in 1760-80. The match for the later tea pot is seen in the Burnap Collection [No. 320, catalogue, 1953, the Nelson-Atkins Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Missouri]. According to John Ramsay, 'the first cauliflower teapot' was made by James Car in New York, Dr Barber adding that Carr & Morrison [1853-88] only made majolica 'for a period of about two years', 1853-5.

Allowance must always be made for the extravagant claims constantly offered by struggling potters who nervously looked for support. Small enterprises might make the loudest noise, asserting that they operated a China Manufactory and calling their ware porcelain, tough they did not possess the requisite materials. Even if they did, it was one thing to know how, but another to produce a successful china.

The early 'pottery att Burlington for white and chiney ware' [1688-92] surely achieved no more than white tin-glazed delftware. Indeed, England herself had done no better at that time. Half a century must pass before porcelains of even an experimental grade ware actually made here.

The ideal, of course, was true hard-paste porcelain like the Chinese, with which all potters had long been well familiar. This was the ware always preferred by fashionable and wealthy persons, who brought so much of it that by 1754 the General Court of Massachusetts passed an Act placing special excise on 'East-India Ware, called China-ware'.

It should be noted that in August 1738 samples of this Chinese ware were sent by the Earl of Egmont [most active of the Trustees of the colony of Georgia] to a certain master potter in Savannah. These samples were to serve as models for one Andrew Duché, already mentioned, first of the three pre-Revolutionary porcelain makers. [p. 411]

Duché [sometimes Duchee, Deshee, Deusha] was third son of the stoneware potter Antoine [Anthony] DuchÚ. Born in 1710 in Philadelphia, he married twice in 1731, worked first at Charleston [1731-5] and then at New Windsor [1735-7] across the river from Augusta, finally at Savannah [1738-43], where he had been assured that 'all reasonable encouragement' would be given him by General James Oglethorpe, founder [1733] of the colony of Georgia. Indeed, he received a grant of £230 and built a pottery, where [say local records of 1743] he 'found out the secret to make as good porcelain as is made in China'.

The late Mr Hommel and Mrs. Gilmer have published extensive notes on Duché, the subject of happy excitement in research circles; and a further hoard of unpublished facts, graciously made available by Mrs. Gilmer, might have assisted persons skeptical of Duché's true achievements.

As for his porcelains, Oglethorpe in 1738 already reported to the Trustees that Duché had found 'an earth' [kaolin, china-clay] and baked it into china. By February in the next year he had discovered 'a whole mountain of stone' [petuntse?] in the Salzburger area, near Ebenezer; and in 1740 Duché found 'a quarry of Ironstone' on the five -acre lot of William Gough. For while conducting his experiments to perfect porcelain, Duché supplied the vicinity with useful articles of common earthenware or ironstone, and stove tiles for the settlement forty miles inland.

On 17 March 1738, he had requested of the Trustees 'two ingenious pot painters', and special supplies including 'a Tun weight of Pig lead, 200 wt of blew smalt such as potters use, 300 wt of block Tin, and an Iron Mortar & Pestle'. The wanted materials [though skimped in their amounts] were sent him in August, and the 'two servants' came in July 1739 on the ship Two Brothers. Duché here had all the requirements for blue-decorated porcelain, and skilled helpers to finish it.

Found in 1946 at Charleston, the unique bowl is heavy for its size, slightly translucent but not resonant. Thanks to the Earl of Egmont's samples, its blue decoration resembles Chinese work but employs a local vernacular, with a band border of white oak leaves, a calyx of slim fern fronds below. If it bears no mark, Mrs. Gilmer rightly asserts it is 'marked' all over. This bowl of experimental grade is just such as Duché would produce from the materials he had and working under the particular conditions.

The story of his after-years belongs not here so much as in English accounts of porcelain making. Drawn into political squabbles, Duché came into disagreement with Colonel William Stephens, who was secretary to the Trustees; ostensibly to plead the cause of the dissatisfied settlers, he left Savannah in March 1743 and appeared in London by May the next year.

Our concern with him centres on his contact with the proprietors of the Bow factory, Edward Heylin and Thomas Frye, who obtained the following December a patent for 'invention of manufacturing a certain material, whereby a Ware may be made of the same material as China'. Their secret [apparently communicated by Duché] was 'an earth, the produce of the Chirokee nation in America, called by the natives unaker'.

This same year, Duché waited upon William Cookworthy, who in a letter of May 1745 discusses 'the person who has discovered the china earth, calling it kaulin, and saying that the finder is going for a Cargo of it'. Cookworthy has seen 'several samples of the china-ware of their making', and understands that the requisite earth is to be found 'on the back of Virginia'.

What profitable arrangements were made by Duché? We hear no more of him as a potter. From 1750 to 1769 he is a 'merchant' and prosperous landowner in Norfolk, Virginia. In 1769 he returned to Philadelphia, and here [described as a 'gentleman'] he died in 1778.

Much briefer is the account of a second porcelain maker, the elusive Samuel Bowen. In 1745 one Henry Gossman, aged eighteen, and 'son of a very poor helpless widow of Purisburg, South Carolina' [a Swiss Hugenot settlement on the river above Savannah], was apprenticed or 'bound to a potter'. This would appear to be Samuel Bowen, now occupying the potworks vacated by Duché two years before.

Not until November 1764 did an English newspaper [the Bristol Journal] report that 'This week, some pieces of porcelain manufactured in Georgia [p. 412] was imported', but added that 'the workmanship is far from being admired'. Two years later [says Alice Morse Earle] Samuel Bowen was awarded a gold medal from the English Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce 'for his useful observations in china and industrious application of them in Georgia' [italics ours]. Two years later, in March 1768, he was thanking the Georgia Commons 'for the Benefits he had received by their Recommendation of him'. Nothing further is known of Bowen.

Bonnin & Morris
Recovering quickly from the French and Indian Wars [the American phase of the Seven Years War, 1756-63], the colonies had enjoyed since mid-century a rising prosperity, an established society, and a higher standard of living. Philadelphia in 1770 was a rich and fashionable centre, likely to support a porcelain factory. 'The China-works now erecting in Southwark' [1 January 1770] was 'compleated, and in motion' the following July, and for just short of two years gave continual report in newspaper advertisements [Prime, Arts & Crafts, pp. 114-24].

The China Proprietors were Gouse Bonnin [from Antiqua] and a Philadelphia Quaker named George Anthony Morris. The latter retired in April / May 1771 and removed to North Carolina, where he died two years later while Bonnin in November 1772 was sulkily 'embarking for England without the least prospect of ever returning to this continent'.

They were financed by a £500 advance from the father of Dr James Mease [Barber, pp. 948-100], who got nothing in return but a blue-painted dinner service, from which one broken basket in the Worcester manner is all that survives [Philadelphia Museum]. This piece and four others, all with a factory mark P in blue, were the 'known' output of Bonnin & Morris.

From the evidence, their ware seems to have been a fine grade of white earthenware, though their 'first Emission of Porcelain' was announced in January 1771, and that same month in an appeal to the Assembly they described the 'Manufacture of Porcelain or China Earthen Ware . . . a sample of it we respectfully submit'. Indeed, they achieved a translucent porcelain. Their clay came from White Clay Creek, near Wilmington [Barber, p. 99] and they advertised in July 1770 for 'any quantity of horses or beeves shank bones', implying the attempt to make bone china. But in August 1772 Bonnin had 'lately made experiments with some clay presented by a Gentleman of Charles Town, South-Carolina'. Could this have been John Bartlam? Although a few years earlier, Richard Champion of Bristol had received [1765] a 'box of porcelain-earth' from his brother-in-law Caleb Lloyd of Charleston. The firm's first notice [January 1770] had referred to 'the famous factory in Bow, near London', as if this were their ideal.

In October 1770 'nine master workmen' arrived in Captain Osborne's ship. Three months later 'a quantity of Zaffer or zaffera' was wanted, and by July the factory could supply 'any Quantity of Blue and White Ware'. As their agent, Archibald M'Elroy in Second Street was exposing a 'General Assortment of AMERICAN CHINA' in January 1771 and next September 'both useful and ornamental Enamelled China'. The factory in January 1772 needed 'Painters, either in blue or enamel'.

Only their blue-printed wares are recognized today, such as a finely modeled sweetmeat dish found in New Jersey, or a tea pot with charming chinoiserie and large initials WP. This latter came from a Philadelphia Quaker family in which it had always been known as 'the William Penn teapot', unaccountably, since the Proprietor was in his grave by 1718.

To the next name in American porcelains it is a leap of forty years. Mentioned in 1810 as 'of New Haven', a certain 'Henry Mead, physician' appeared in the New York directory for 1816-17. This was the alleged maker of a solitary all-white vase [Plate 19, Clement's Own Pioneer Potters] on the evidence of a paper label: Finished in New York 1816. A little late then, 'In 1819 the manufacture of Porcelain . . . was commenced in New York by Dr. H. Mead' [J. Leander Bishop, History of American Manufactures]. No less confusing, the doctor's obituary notice [1843] said that 'he commenced at Jersey City'.

Records are far more satisfactory for the Jersey Porcelain & Earthenware Company, established in December 1825, in Jersey City and sold in September 1828 to David Henderson. In 1826 this firm won a silver medal at the Franklin Institute, for the 'best china from American materials', though what competition might they have had? Fragments of hard-paste porcelain have been unearthed on the factory site, and praise of a visitor to the factory in 1826 [Clement, p. 68] was for articles 'either of white biscuit, or of white and gold in the French style'. Dr Barber in 1902 described one gold-banded white bowl 'made in 1826', then in the Trumbull-Prime collection at Princeton but now lost.

Tucker porcelain
Coming now to the first really successful chinaworks, we need little more than to correct and abbreviate the oft-told accounts of that well-documented Philadelphia enterprise of 1826-38, Tucker porcelains. More than half a century ago, Dr. Barber devoted a chapter [pp. 126-53] to these well appreciated wares, Antiques, June 1828, pp. 480-4, adding further reports.

Born of a prosperous Quaker family, William Ellis Tucker [1800-32] began in 1826 his earnest experiments [p. 413] in porcelain making, at the old Waterworks building in Philadelphia. That year he bought [in brief partnership with one John Bird] a property near Wilmington, Delaware, that yielded feldspar, and another at 'Mutton Hollow in the state of New Jersey' that provided kaolin or blue clay. In 1827 his porcelains won a silver medal at the 4th Franklin Institute exhibition, and in 1828 another, for ware comparing with 'the best specimens of French China'.

Examples of his earlier work are three pieces c. 1827 with painted scenes not in the familiar sepia, but darker brown. A cup showing the Dam and Waterworks at Fairmount is apparently after the Thomas Birch drawing published 1824 [the same used on blue-printed Staffordshire pottery of 1825-30, Nos. 249-50 and 535-6 in Mrs Larsen's book]. The Old Schuylkill Bridge occurs on a cordate scent bottle owned by a Tucker descendant [Antiques, October 1936, p. 167]. Again the subject is used on blue Staffordshire and in very rich taste was employed on a Hemphill jug of about 1835 [Antiques, June 1928, p. 481].

In 1828 a younger brother, Thomas Tucker [born 1812], became an apprentice, and William himself formed a partnership [1828-9] with John Hulme, as Tucker & Hulme. From this time came a large tea service factory-marked and dated 1828 [Antiques, October 1933, p. 134] with typical 'spider' border in gold, wrongly said to enjoy 'the distinction of being the first complete sett of china manufactured in this country'.

In 1831 Tucker established still another partnership, Tucker & Hemphill [with Alexander Hemphill], and that year his porcelains won a silver medal at the American Institute, New York. William Tucker died in 1832, and from 1833 to 1836 the factory was continued by Alexander's father, Judge Joseph Hemphill, with Thomas Tucker as manager. The Hemphill period displayed rich taste, with enamel painting in Sèvres style and a lavish use of gold. Its masterpiece was a large vase made in 1835 by Thomas Tucker, the gilt-bronze handles designed by Friedrich Sachse and cast by C. Cornelius & Sons of Philadelphia.

The first quality of work about 1835 is seen in a mug with gold scrollwork and coloured scene entitled Baltimore in black script underfoot. Five cups from a set of Presidents must be dated towards the factory's close, since Jackson's portrait is from the National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans, published in 1834-6. Judge Hemphill retired in 1837, and Thomas Tucker rented the factory a year, closing it in 1838.

After a curious lapse of a decade, when porcelains were wholly neglected, five factories deserve notice as producers of such ware on a commercial scale.

In 1843 Julius Norton, a Vermont potter, brought from England one John Harrison, a modeller at the Copeland works, where the year before a waxy white porcelain called Parian or Statuary Ware had been perfected [see Glossary]. Harrison's experiments from October 1843 to mid- 1845 were interrupted by a disastrous fire, and he returned to Stoke. During 1845-7 the firm of Norton & Fenton set this work aside; but from 1847 to 1850 the reorganized Lyman & Fenton was producing successful whitewares; including Parian. An example is the Daisy and Tuilip jug in white porcelain, showing the Fenton's Works mark of 1847-8, though variants of this design continued for some years.

With new financing and expansion in 1851-2, Christopher Webber Fenton developed blue-and-white porcelains or rarely tan, still rarer the green-and-white. Much work was unsigned, but the familiar U.S.P. ribbonmark of the United States Pottery Co. [1853-8] is found 'principally upon porcelain pitchers and vases, both the white and blue-and-white, and upon some Parian pieces' [Spargo, The A.B.C., p. 19].

From the latter years of the factory, which closed in 1858, came whole dinner or tea services of heavy, gold-banded porcelain [Spargo, Potters of Bennington, Plate XXVII]. Kaolin had been obtained from Monkton, Vermont. Pitchers displayed at the Crystal Palace exhibition in New York [1853-4] were ïmade of the flint from Vermont and Massachusetts, the feldspar from New Hampshire, and the china clays from Vermont and South Carolina'.


[L. G. G. Ramsey, F.S.A., ed. The Complete Color Encyclopedia of Antiques. Preface by Bevis Hillier, Editor of The Connoisseur. Compiled by The Connoisseur, London. New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc. 1962. Revised and Expanded Edition.]



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