Notebook, 1993-

[From: Porada, Edith [With the collaboration of R. H. Dyson and contributions by C.K. Wilkinson]. The Art of Ancient Iran, Pre-Islamic Cultures. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. Art of the World. 1962.}

Preface --- 1.Geography and Trade --- 2.Beginnings of Art --- 3.The Art of The Early Urban Civilization --- 4.The Art of the Akkad and Post-Akkad Periods in Western Iran; Contemporary Art Works of North-Eastern Iran --- 5.The Art of the Elamites --- 6.The Bronzes of Luristan --- 8.Finds of The Late Second and Early First Millennium B.C. at Sialk Near Kashan --- 9.The Finds of Hasanlu - The Art of the Manneans --- 10.The Treasure of Ziwiye --- 11.The Art of the Medes --- 12.The Art of the Achaemenids --- 13.The Art of The Seleucids --- 14.The Art of the Parthians --- 15.Sasanian Art

The Art of Ancient Iran, Pre-Islamic

Notes for Chapter Nine

1. Carbon-14 dates for Hassanlu are publishd in E.K. Ralph, 'University of Pennsylvania Radiocarbon Dates III,' American Journal of Science, Radiocarbon Supplement I [1959], pp. 49-51 and R. Stuckenrath, 'University of Pennsylvania Radiocarbon Dates VI,' Radiocarbon 5 [1963], pp. 85-90. The published dates are given in the old half-life of 5568 30 years, but have not been recalculated in the above statement for a half-life of 5730 40 years, adopted by the Carbon-14 Conference of 1962 as the best present estimate. Only samples receiving equivalent laboratory processing have been used in the above presentation.

2. Two beakers said to come from Luristan show forms somewhat similar to that of the silver beaker from Hasanlu and also have raised ridges which divide the surface of the beaker into several horizontal bands. One is illustrated by G. Goossens, Bronzen uit Loeristan [Koninklijke Musea... Brussels, 1956], Pl. 17 [formerly in the Graeffe Collection]; the other is reproduced in Survey IV, Pl. 68 B [formerly in the Holmes Collection]. Tall beakers of somewhat similar shape were found in Beshtasheni in Georgia, of which representative examples were illustrated by Schaeffer in Stratigraphie, Fig. 285.

3. The characteristics of the Assyrian chariot from the time of Ashurnasirpal can be seen in the reliefs reproduced in R. D. Barnett, Assyrian Reliefs, Pls. 24-27. See also, the article by B. Hrouda, 'Der assyriache Streitwagen,' Iraq XXV [1963], Pl. XXIX: 3, 5, 6 and p. 156.

4. An example of an enemy with his hand raised in supplication, as if to ward off the arrow which has already pierced his breast, is seen in the relief of Ashurnasirpal, Barnett, Assyrian Reliefs, Pl. 24; an enemy hanging over a chariot wheel is seen in ibid., Pl. 25-Both postures are combined in the rendering of the enemy on the chariot of the Hasanlu beaker.

5. For the glazed knobs and tiles of Assyrian palaces, see Andrae, Coloured Ceramics, Pls. 31-36. For the human-headed bulls and lions at the entrances to the main halls of the palace of Ashurnasirpal II, see A. H. Layard, Monuments of Nineveh [London, 1849], Pls. 3. For the human-headed bulls at the entrance to the throne room of Sargon II [721-705 B.C.], see Frankfort, Art and Architecture, pp. 76-77, Fig. 31.

6. W. Andrae, Die jüngeren Ischtar = Tempel in Assur [WVDOG 58, 1935], Pl. 37 b, text p. 93.

7. A glazed terracotta head of a human-headed bull or bull-man from Susa was published in MDP XXIX [1943], p. 64, Fig. 53:3. It seemed to correspond in size to the head from Hasanlu.

8. Godard, Ziwiyè, p. 104, Fig. 90.

9. For a discussion of these situlae or cups, see R. S. Young, 'Bronzes from Gordion's Royal Tomb,' Archaeology II [Winter 1958], pp. 227-231.

10. The blue material used for inlays on the ram rhyton, which is at present being analyzed, appears to be similar in quality to the 'Egyptian blue' objects from Persepolis analyzed by F.R. Matson and published in Persepolis II, pp. 133-135. The blue colour in most of these man-made materials is formed from various copper compounds and not from lapis lazuli as is often stated in the absence of analytical data.

11. The Urartian psalia with horse heads from Altin Tepe are published by Tahsin Ozgüç, 'Excavations at Altintepe,' Belleton XXV [1961], p. 287, Figs. 16, 17.

12. The horse head from Karmir Blur was published by B. B. Piotrovskii in Iskusstuo Urartu [Hermitage Museum, Leningrad, 1962], Pls. XXVI-XXVII.

13. A drawing of the impression of this cylinder seal was published in Archaeology 13 [Summer 1960], p. 128.

14. For a discussion of the 'lion bowl from Hasanlu', see the article with that title by M. N. van Loon in Expedition 4 [Summer 1962], pp. 14-19.

[Porada, Edith [With the collaboration of R. H. Dyson and contributions by C.K. Wilkinson]. The Art of Ancient Iran, Pre-Islamic Cultures. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. Art of the World. 1962.]



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