Notebook, 1993-

[From: Porada, Edith [With the collaboration of R. H. Dyson and contributions by C.K. Wilkinson]. The Art of Ancient Iran, Pre-Islamic Cultures. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. Art of the World. 1962.}

Preface --- 1.Geography and Trade --- 2.Beginnings of Art --- 3.The Art of The Early Urban Civilization --- 4.The Art of the Akkad and Post-Akkad Periods in Western Iran; Contemporary Art Works of North-Eastern Iran --- 5.The Art of the Elamites --- 6.The Bronzes of Luristan --- 8.Finds of The Late Second and Early First Millennium B.C. at Sialk Near Kashan --- 9.The Finds of Hasanlu - The Art of the Manneans --- 10.The Treasure of Ziwiye --- 11.The Art of the Medes --- 12.The Art of the Achaemenids --- 13.The Art of The Seleucids --- 14.The Art of the Parthians --- 15.Sasanian Art

The Art of Ancient Iran, Pre-Islamic

Notes for Sasanian Art

[NOTE: The following notes have to be edited--they are complete, but they need to correspond accurately to the Footnote # in the document--a copy of the original text must be obtained again to check on any possible errors in that regard.]

1. The nature of Anahita and her cult as well as the relations of the early members of the Sasanian family to the goddess and her sanctuary were extensively discussed by M. Chaumont, 'Le Culte d'Anähitä à Staxr et les premiers Sassanides,' Revu de l'histoire des religions CLIII [1958], pp. 154-175.

2. This unprecedented agricultural and industrial growth in Sasanian times has been proved at least for the province of Khuzistan by Adams, 'Early South-western Iran,' especially pp. 116-120.

3. R. Göbl drew attention to these Byzantine payments to the Sasanians in Die Münzen der Sasaniden im Königlichen Münzkabinett Haag [Koninklijk Penningkabinet, 's-Gravenhage, 1962], p. 5.

4. A useful summary and bibliography of these Russian excavations in Central Asia is given by G. Frumkin in Bibliotheca Orientalis XIX [1962], pp. 122-125.

5. Aerial photographs were taken by E. F. Schmidt and his collaborators and published in Flights over Ancient Iran, Pl. 18.

6. The most extensive recent description of the site of the ancient town was given by Sir Aurel Stein in 'An Archaeological Tour in the ancient Persis,' Iraq III [1936], pp. 117-119.

7. The measurements given for these buildings are taken from Reuther, Survey I, pp. 534 ff. passim.

8. Erdmann, however, draws attention to the rather extensive survival of such cavetto cornices after the Achaemenid period, though he does not deny the likelihood of a conscious architectural reminiscence by the builder of Firuzabad. K. Erdmann, 'Lückenforschung im iranischen Kunstkreis,' Kunst des Orients I [1950], p. 35.

9. The measurements for the arched hall are taken from H. Lacoste, 'L'arc de Ctesiphon ou Taq Kesra [Mésopotamie],' Sumer X [1954], p. 13.

10. The German excavations in Ctesiphon were published by O. Reuther, Die Ausgrabunen der Deutschen Ktesiphon-Expedition in Winter 1928/29 [Wittenberg, 1930] and by E. Kühnel and F. Wachsmuth, Die Ausgrabungen der zweiten Ktesiphon-Expedition [Winter 1931-32]: vorläufiger Bericht [Berlin, 1933]. Both publications were edited by the Islamische Kunstabteiling der Staatlichen Museen in Berlin; the second report was jointly headed by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

11. For a plan, photographs and a description of the principal features of the temple of Bishapur, see Ghirshman, Persian Art [1962], pp. 148-150 and Figs. 189-192.

12. Vanden Berghe's report on his investigations of Sasanian fire sanctuaries was published in 'Récentes Découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Färs [Prospections hiver 1959-60 et hiver 1960-61],' Iranica Antiqua I [1961], pp. 163-198; cf. especially pp. 175-181, where Vanden Berghe describes the fire temple of Kunár Siáh and the closely similar structure of Tang-i-Chak Chak. In the interpretation of the structures discovered by him, Vanden Berghe follows K. Erdmann in Das iranische Feuerheiligtum, passim, espcially pp. 50 ff. and 53 ff.; and A. Godard, 'Les Monuments du feu,' Athár-&eaucte; Ir&aaucte;n III [1938], pp. 7-80. The largest fire sanctuary of Sasanian times, Shiz, now Takht-i Suleiman, is not yet fully excavated. Nevertheless, the German excavator, R. Naumann, made some important preliminary suggestions concerning this complex: it was a combination of fire temple and palace. The palace surrounded the fire temple in a large rectangular plan, and in the centre of a gigantic square court was the lake. Surrounding the court were halls with large iwans on the sides, while the fire temple lay in the main axis of the complex. There are features which according to Naumann relate the complex to that of Kuh-i Khwadja. See R. Naumann in Archäologischer Anzeiger 1961, cols. 29-54, especially col. 50.

13. The role of the Christian Church of the Sasanian empire as a mediator between East and West was discussed by K. Erdmann in Kunst, pp. 43-44. Moreover, the same author cited examples of relations between products of early medieval and Sasanian art in 'Die universalgeschichtliche Stellung der sasanidischen Kunst,' Saeculum I [1950], espcially pp. 512-517. Examples of such relations are also given by Ghirshman, Persian Art [1962], 'The Diffusion of Sassanian Art,' pp. 283 ff.

14 For a discussion of the coins showing the investiture of the king by the goddess Anahita, see R. Göbl's article, 'Investitur im sasanidischen Iran . . . ' cited in the Bibliography under 'Coins'.

15. Some coins of Ardashir already show considerable scuptural quality in renderings of the king's portrait. These may have been produced by die-makers who came from the West. R. Göbl drew my attention to these coins and made several helpful suggestions for this survey of Sasanian coins, for which I also want to acknowledge the active help of George C. Miles.

16. Erdmann discussed in 'Die Entwicklung der sásánidischen Krone,' Ars Islamica XV-XVI [1951] pp. 89-90, note 10, the Sasanian literary and pictorial tradition available to the early Arab historians concerning the crowns of the kings and their colours.

17. Tabari's text is quoted from the translation by M. H. Zotenberg, Chronique . . . de Tabori . . . II [Paris 1869], pp. 205-206.

18. Erdmann cited the German translation of this description on p. 117 [left column] of his article, mentioned in note XV/16.

19. For a translation of the description in the royal legend of Ardashir of the ram which was seen on Ardashir's horse and which represented the auspicious radiance, the xvarnah, see G. Widengren, ranische Geistesvelt [Baden-Baden, 1961], p. 302.

20. The relief in Azerbaijan was reproduced by Vanden Berghe, Archéologie, Pl. 150a and by Herzfeld, Iran, Pl. CVII, top. Another relief [in the village of Hung Naurúzi], was listed by Vanden Berghe as probably showing a Sasanian king [Archéologie, pp. 62-63], but was subsequently published by him as a Parthian relief, 'Le Relief parthe de Hung-Inažruzi,' Iranica Antiqua III/2 [1963], pp. 155-168.

21. The explanation of the choice of Naqsh-i Rustem for the locatin of Ardashir's relief is given by Erdmann, Kunst, p. 50.

22. See the article by B.C. MacDermot, 'Roman Emperors in Sassanian Reliefs,' The Journal of Roman StudiesXLIV [1954], pp. 76-80.

23. Excellent reproductions of these reliefs are given in Ghirshman, Persian Art [1962], pp. 125-130.

24. The relief of Bahram II which shows the king fighting lions was carved in a rock near the village of Sar Mashad, in the vicinity of Kazarun. Herzfeld reproduced details of the relief in Iran, Pl. CXXIII. Vanden Berghe reproduced a photograph in Archéologie, Pl. 74a and in Iranica Antiqua III/1 [1963], Pl. XXIV, one of the Elamite relief near Malamir with a family grup. A drawaing of the relief was published in MDP III [1901], Pl. 32a.

25. The excerpts from Ammianus are here quoted from Ammiamus Marcellinus, Loeb Class. Library, XXIV.6.8 and XXIV.1.12. A discussion of the type of helmet worn by the Sasanians can be found in S. V. Grancsay, 'A Sasanian Chieftain's Helmet,' Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art [April 1963], pp. 253-262.

26. I owe this information to W. B. Trousdale, at present associated with the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

27. On the basis of the beautiful reproduction of the boar hunt of Taq-i Bustan in R. Ghirshman, Persian Art [1962], pp. 194-196, Miss E. J. Holmes suggested the interpretation of the three boars as actually rendering only one animal in continuous narration, a device occasionally used in ancient Near Eastern art, for example, in the altar of Tukulti-Ninurta I from Assur, most conveniently reproduced in Frankfort, Art and Architecture, Pl. 73 [B].

28. See the reproduction of the composite stucco panel from Chalnar Tarkhan near Teheran, now in the Philadelphia Museum of Art, in Ghirshman, Persain Art[1962], p. 187. An example of a plaque with a single boar found near Ctesiphon was shown by Erdmann, Kunst, Fig. 41.

29. For the bibliography of the controversy over the date of the Taq-i-Bustan, see Vanden Berghe, Archéologie, pp. 188-189, Nos. 247-250.

30. See Ghirshman's chapter on 'The Diffusion of Sassanian Art' in Persian Art [1962], pp. 283 ff.

31. See, for the observations which led to these statements, Kühnel's remarks in Die Augrabungen der zweiten Ktesiphon-Expedition [Winter1931/32], p. 16 ff.

32. In Bìchâpour, p. 174, Ghirsman assigned the battlements of Bishapur to the Early Islamic period [the late seventh rather than the first half of the eighth century, p. 173], although he stressed the Sasanian character of the wing palmette.

33. The stucco sculpture of a saint was published in Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 67 [April 1929], Fig. 13, p. 25.

34. A similar transformation of a horizontal into a circular movement was noted by Erdmann in a bowl found at Poltava and asigned to Shapur II [310-379]; see Kunst, pp. 93-94.

35. I owe the information contained in this description to the Conservation Department of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The description of the technical process agrees substantially with that given by Erdmann, 'Die sasanidischen Jagdschalen' on p. 199 [continuation of note 3 from the foregoing page], Jahrbuch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen 59 [1936], pp. 193-232.

36. The classification and dating of the 'hunting bowls', which Erdmann presented in extenso in the article cited in note XV/35, were summarized by him in 'Zur Chronologie der sasanidischen Jagdschalen', Zeitschrift der deutshhen morgenlándischen Gesellschaft97 [1943], especially pp. 242-243.

37. The correctness of the dating of the bowl in the time of Bahram I [273-276] or II [276-293] was questioned by R. Gūbl in an oral communication to the present author.

38. The origin of the bowl in a workshop other than those of the Sasanian court was suggested by Erdmann on p. 265 of the article cited in note XV/36.

39. The different attributions of the bowl in the Hermitage are cited by O. Maenchen-Helfen, 'Crenelated Mane and Scabbard Slide,' Central Asiatic Journal, Pl. III/2 [1957], p. 113.

40. The cup of Chosroes I is conveniently reproduced in Ghirshman, Persian Art [1962], p. 205, Fig. 244.

41. Reproduced by C. Trever, Nouveaux plats sasanides de l'Ermitage [Leningrad, 1937], Pl. III.

42. The bowl is reproduced in Survey IV, Pl. 215 B.

43. The following remarks on sealings of clay bullae are based on samples of bullae from Takht-i-Abu Nasr near Shiraz in the Metropolitan Museum, kindly shown to the writer by Mrs. Prudence Oliver Harper, who will publish these sealings in collaboration with R. N. Frye. A good framework for the dating of Sasanian gems seems to have been worked out by V. Lukonin in Y.J. Borisov and V. L ukonin, Sasanidskie gemii [State Hermitage Museum, 1963], Englisih summary on pp. 33-35.

44. The seal with the goddess Anahita and the female worshipper is in the British Museum [B. M. No. 119358] and is unpublished.

45. The suggestion that the 'monogram' closely resembles peasant house marks and 'Tamgen' of nomadic peoples was made by Erdmann in Kunst, p. 115.

46. Mrs. P. Oliver Harper published a bronze bowl with a Senmurw; however, the representation of the monstser contains reminiscences of earlier renderings of lion griffins. See 'The Senmurw', Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art [Nov. 1961], 95-101.

[Porada, Edith [With the collaboration of R. H. Dyson and contributions by C.K. Wilkinson]. The Art of Ancient Iran, Pre-Islamic Cultures. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. Art of the World. 1962.]



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