Notebook, 1993-



To Affirm . . . . Strengthen, Confirm, Establish, Give Existence to . . . . [Includes: A Display, Communication, Expression, Clarification, Encouragement, Verification] . . . . . Could apply to a Thought, Proof, Evidence, Idea, Composition, Subject Matter, Issue, Theme, Discourse, Study, Sentiment . . . . May effect the prevailing, consequent, separate or independent Existence, Means, Possession, Essential Part of a thing - perhaps in Gist, Character, Quality, Essence, Meaning, Import . . . .

R  E  F  E  R  E  N  C  E  S 
Substantiate vt -ated; -ating [1657] 1: to give substance or form to: Embody 2: to establish by proof or competent evidence: Verify [__ a charge] -syn. see Confirm -substantiation n -substantiative adj

Substantive adj [ME, fr. LL, substantivus having substance, fr. L substantia] [14c] 1: being a totally independent entity 2a: real rather than apparent: Firm; also: Permanent, Enduring b: belonging to the substance of a thing : Essential c: expressing existence [the __ verb is the verb to be] d: requiring or involving no mordant [a __ dyeing process] 3a: having the nature or function of a grammatical suvtantive [a __ phrase] b: relating to or having the character of a noun or pronominal term in logic 4: considerable in amount or numbers: substantial 5: creating and defining rights and duties [ __ law] -compare Procedural 6: having substance: involving matters of major or practical importance to all concerned [__ discussions among world leaders]

Substance n [ME, fr. MF, fr. L substantia, fr. substant-, substans, prp. of substare to stand under, fr. sub- + stare to stand -more at Stand] [14c] 1a: essential nature: Essence b: a fundamental or characteristic part or quality c Christian Science: God 1b 2a: ultimate reality that underlies all outward manifestations and change b: practical importance: Meainng, Usefulness [the . . . bill--which wil be without __ in the sense that it will authorize nothing more than a set of ideas -Richard Reeves] 3a: physical material from which something is made or which has discrete existence b: matter of particular or definite chemical constitution c: something [as drugs or alcoholic beverages] deemed harmful and usu. subject to legal restriction [possession of a cotnrolled __] [has a __ problem] 4: material possessions: Property [a family of __] -substanceless adj -in substance: in respect to essentials: Fundamentally

[Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition. Springfield, MA, USA: Merriam-Webster, Inc. 1995.]



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