*Absolute & Relative Proportion - Biological Systems of Porportion - Divina Proportione - Geometry of Art and Life - Laws of Proportion - More than one Rule in Operation Simultaneously - Proportions of Light & Shadow - Simple Constant Proportionality*

Proportion depends less upon equality of parts than upon that agreement among them that is determined by their relation to a whole:

Comparative relation between things or magnitudes; ratio . . . . Relation, Portion, Part, Dimensions . . . . Ratio, Size, Extent, Magnitude . . . . Dimensions, Symmetry, Harmony, Balance - In its relation to the whole . . . . In Comparative, Proper or Significant Relation . . . . To adjust in Proper Relation - Regulate, Balance, Harmonize

*For example: Narrowing - Widening . . . . Heightening - Shortening . . . . Tightening - Loosening . . . . Extending - Retreating . . . . Opening - Closing . . . . More - Less . . . . *

" . . . . the product of the means equals the product of the extremes. When the proportion is written in equation form, however, this rule is seen to be simply the result of a familiar algebraic operation. Similarly all the other rules stated for proportions become obvious when the proportion is written as an equation and the usual rules of algebra are applied. The special proportion a/b = b/(a + B) is known as the Divine Proportion, or Golden Section." *[Harris, William H., and Judith S. Levey, eds. The New Columbia Encyclopedia. New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1975.]*

A fundamental principle which defines art is "measure," by which Plato means the determination of appropriate relationships through knowledge of proportion and of the mean." *[From Hofstadter, Albert, and Richard Kuhns, eds. Philosophies of Art and Beauty, Selected Readings In Aesthetics From Plato to Heidegger. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964. p. 5.]*

**C O N S I D E R:**.

Relationship

To Adjust the Size, Amount, or Proportion of in appropriate Relation.

Comparative, Proper or Significant relation

Portion or part in its relation to the whole

Dimensions

Ratio

Size

Extent

Magnitude

Dimensions

Symmetry

Harmony

Balance

Regulate

Harmonize

Narrowing-Widening

Heightening-Shorting

Thickening-Thinning

More-Less

Measure

R E F E R E N C E S

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