Absolute & Relative Proportion - Biological Systems of Porportion - Divina Proportione - Geometry of Art and Life - Laws of Proportion - More than one Rule in Operation Simultaneously - Proportions of Light & Shadow - Simple Constant Proportionality
Comparative relation between things or magnitudes; ratio . . . . Relation, Portion, Part, Dimensions . . . . Ratio, Size, Extent, Magnitude . . . . Dimensions, Symmetry, Harmony, Balance - In its relation to the whole . . . . In Comparative, Proper or Significant Relation . . . . To adjust in Proper Relation - Regulate, Balance, Harmonize
For example: Narrowing - Widening . . . . Heightening - Shortening . . . . Tightening - Loosening . . . . Extending - Retreating . . . . Opening - Closing . . . . More - Less . . . .
" . . . . the product of the means equals the product of the extremes. When the proportion is written in equation form, however, this rule is seen to be simply the result of a familiar algebraic operation. Similarly all the other rules stated for proportions become obvious when the proportion is written as an equation and the usual rules of algebra are applied. The special proportion a/b = b/(a + B) is known as the Divine Proportion, or Golden Section." [Harris, William H., and Judith S. Levey, eds. The New Columbia Encyclopedia. New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1975.]
A fundamental principle which defines art is "measure," by which Plato means the determination of appropriate relationships through knowledge of proportion and of the mean." [From Hofstadter, Albert, and Richard Kuhns, eds. Philosophies of Art and Beauty, Selected Readings In Aesthetics From Plato to Heidegger. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964. p. 5.]
C O N S I D E R:.
To Adjust the Size, Amount, or Proportion of in appropriate Relation.
Comparative, Proper or Significant relation
Portion or part in its relation to the whole
R E F E R E N C E S
Proportion 1. the comparative relation between things or magnitudes; ratio. 2. proper or significant relation between things or parts. 3. relative size or extent. 4. proportions, dimensions. 5. any portion or part in its relation to the whole. 6. symmetry, harmony, or balance. 7. Math. a. a relation of four quantities such that the first divided by the second is equal to the third divided by the fourth; the equality of ratios. b. See rule of three. -v.t. 8. to adjust the size, amount, or proportion of in proper relation. [ME proporcio(u)n < proportion- (s. of proportio) symmetry, analogy]
-Syn. 6. See symmetry [Proportion, symmetry, balance and harmony are terms used, particularly in the arts, to denote qualities based upon a correspondence or agreement, usually pleasing, among the parts of a whole. SYMMETRY implies either a quantitative equality of parts or a unified system of subordinate parts: the perfect symmetry of pairs of matched columns; the symmetry of a well-ordered musical composition. BALANCE implies equality of parts, often as a means of emphasis: Balance in sentences may emphasize the contrast in ideas. HARMONY, a technical term in music, may also suggest the pleasing quality that arises from a just ordering of parts in other forms of artistic composition: harmony of line, color, phrase, ideas. PROPORTION depends less upon equality of parts than upon that agreement among them that is determined by their relation to a whole: The dimensions of the room gave a feeling of right proportion.] 8. regulate, balance, harmonize.
[Urdang, Laurence, ed. Random House Dictionary of The English Language. New York: Random House,1968.]
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