Notebook, 1993-



Clarify . . . . Deepen . . . . Define, Refine, Finish, Polish . . . . Enrich . . . . Advance, Elaborate or Expand . . . . Construct, Evolve, Unfold, Progress, Build, Freshen . . . . Enable, Bring out, Affirm or Substantiate . . . . Transform . . . . Stabilize . . . . Complete, Resolve, Mature, etc. . . . .

To bring regard, deliberation, finish, tone, aesthetic, resolve, completion, definition, depth, harmony, weight, dimension, value, clarity, etc. to meaning . . . . Personal, Functional, Disciplinary, Stylistic, Theoretical, Philosophic, Historic, Cultural orientation, etc.

Developments may proceed through personal appreciation of the arts and art works on a very general level . . . . or may proceed specific to a discipline [i.e., Oil Painting, Photography, Intaglio, etc.] or disciplines . . . . or may proceed with focus upon categories of visual arts experience [i.e., aims and objectives involved with visual elements and relationships] . . . . or may proceed specific to a Historic, Cultural, Practical, Theoretical, or Topical focus.

C O N S I D E R:
Bring out, bring to, elaborate, expand, bring into, generate, evolve, transfer, extend, render visible, treat, grow into, advance, come gradually into, be evolved, be disclosed, become evident or manifest, undergo differentiation or progress, wrap up-envelope-dissimulate/capabilities, possibilities, state, detail, being or activity, effective play, into existence or operation /progress, developed state, form or product, expansion, elaboration, growth, evolution, unfolding, maturing.

R  E  F  E  R  E  N  C  E  S 
Develop vb [F développer, fr. OF desveloper, desvoluper to unwrap, expose, fr. des- de- + envoloper to enclose -more at Envelop] vt [1750] 1a: to set forth or make clear by degree or in detail: Expound b: to make visible or manifest c: to treat [as in dyeing] with an agent to cause the appearance of color d: to subject [exposed photograph material] esp. to chemicals in order to produce a visible image: also: to make visible by such a method e: to elaborate [a musical idea] by the working out of rhythmic and harmonic changes in the theme 2: to work out the possibilities of 3a: to make active or promote the growth of [__ed his muscles] b [1]: to make available or usable [__ natural resources] [2]: to make suitable for commercial or residential purposes c: to move [as a chess pieces] from the original position to one providing more opportunity for effective use 4a: to cause to unfold gradually [__ed his argument] b: to expand by a process of growth [__ed a strong organization] c: to cause to grow and differentiate along lines natural to its kind [rain and sun __ the grain] d: to have unfold or differentiate within one [__ed pneumonia] 5: to acquire gradually [__ an appreciation for ballet] -vi 1a: to go through a process of natural growth, differentiation, or evolution by successive changes [a blossom __s from a bud] b: to acquire secondary sex characters 2: to become gradually manifest 3: to come into being gradually [the situation --ing in eastern Europe]; also: Turn Out vi 2a [it __ed that no one had paid the bill] -developable adj.

[Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition. Springfield, MA, USA: Merriam-Webster, Inc. 1995.]

Develop v.t. 1. to bring out the capabilities or possibilities of; bring to a more advanced or effective state. 2. to cause to grow or expand. 3. to elaborate or expand in detail; to develop a theory. 4. to bring into being or activity; generate; evolve. 5. to transfer the details of [a two-dimensional design, pattern, or the like] from one surface onto another without altering the distances between points. 6. Math. to express in an extended form, as in a series. 7. Photog. a. to render visible [the latent image on an exposed film or the like]. b. to treat [an exposed film or the like] with chemicals so as to make visible its latent image. 8. Chess. to bring [a piece] into effective play. v.i. 9. to grow into a more mature or advanced state; advance; expand. 10 . to come gradually into existence or operation; be evolved. 11. to be disclosed; become evident or manifest. 12. Biol. to undergo differentiation in ontogeny or progress in phylogeny. 13. to undergo developing, as a photographic film. [< F développ[er], OF desveloper = des- DIS- + veloper to wrap up; see envelope]

Development n. 1. the act or process of developing; progress. 2. a developed state, form, or product. 3. Music. the part of a movement or composition in which a theme or themes are developed. 4. a large group of dwellings constructed as a unified community. 5. Chess. the act or process of developing chess pieces. -Syn. 1. expansion, elaboration, growth, evolution; unfoldling, maturing, maturation. 2. maturity. ripeness. -Ant. 1. deterioration, disintegration.

Envelope...[ME envolupe[n] < OF envolupe[r], by dissimilation < L involvere to wrap up. See Involve]. -Syn. 1. enfold, cover, conceal. 3. encompass, enclose . . . .

Define 1. to state or set forth the meaning of [a word, phrase, etc.] 2. to explain the nature or essential qualities of; describe: to define judicial functions. 3. to determine or fix the boundaries or extent of: to define property with stakes. 4. to make clear the outline or form of: the roof of the barn was boldly defined against the sky. 5. to specify distinctly: to define one's responsibilities [ME def(f)ine(n) < AF, OF defin(r) (to) put an end to < L définíre to limit, explain. See DE-, FINISH]

Finish 1. to bring [something] to an end or to completion; complete. 2. to come to the end of [a course, period of time, etc.]: to finish school. 3. to use completely [often fol. by up or off]: to finish up a can of paint. 4. to overcome completely; destroy or kill [often fol. by off]: This spray will finish off the cockroaches. 5. to complete and perfect in detail; put the final touches on [sometimes fol. by up]: She finished up a painting. 6. to put a finish on [wood, metal, etc.]: We finished the desk in antique red lacquer. 7. to perfect [a person] in education, accomplishments, social graces, etc. -v.i. 8. to come to an end. 9. to complete a course, project, etc. [sometimes fol. by up]: It was nine o-clock when we finished up. 10. to die. -n. 11. the end or conclusion; the last stage. 12. the end of a hunt, race, etc.: a close finish. 13. a decisve ending; death: a fight to the finish. 14. the quality of being finished or completed with smoothness, elegance, etc. 15. educational or social polish. 16. the surface coating or texture of wood, metal, etc.: a glossy finish. 17. something used or serving to finish, complete, or perfect a thing. 18. ornamental woodwork or the like, esp. inside a building. 19. a final coat of plaster or paint. 20. a material for application in finishing. [ME . . . . (n), long s. of finir < L finíre to end. See FINE1' -Syn. 1. terminate, conclude, close. 3. consume. 11. termination. see end. 14. polish, refinement. -Ant. 1. begin.

Refine 1. to bring to a fine or a p ure state. 2. to purify from what is coarse, vulgar, or debasing. 3. to bring to a finer state or form by purifying. 4. to make more fine, elegant, or polished. -v.i. 5. to become pure. 6. to become more fine, elegant, or polished. 7. to make fine distinctions in thought or language.

Refined 1. having or showing well-bred feeling, taste, etc. 2. freed or free from coarseness, vulgarity, etc. 3. freed from impurities. 4. very subtle, precise, or exact. -Syn. 1. cultivated, polishd. 3. clarified, distilled, purifid. -Ant. 1. rude, coarse, crude.

Fine [ME fin < OF < L fin(is) end, utmost limit, highest point .]

Polish 1. to make smooth or glossy, esp. b rubbing or friction. 2. to render finished, refined, or elegant. 3. to take or bring to a different state by polishing or refining [often fol. by away, of, or out]. -v.i. 4. to become smooth and glossy through polishing. 5. Archaic. to become refined or elegant..... 9. the state of being polished. 10. smoothness and a bright reflection of surface. 11. superiority of manner or execution; refinement; elegance. [ME polishe(n) < MF poliss-, long s. of polir M L polír to polish: see -ISH2]. -Syn. 1. shine, brighten, burnish, buff, smooth. 10. shine, gleam. Polish, Gloss, Luster, Sheen refer to a smooth, shining, or bright surface form which light is reflected. Polish suggests the smooth, bright reflection often produced by friction: rubbed to a high polish. ....

Enrich 1. to supply with riches, wealth, abundant or valuable possessions, etc. 2. to supply with abundance of anything desirable: to enrich the mind with knowledge. 3. to add greater value or significance to. 4. to adorn or decorate. 5. to make finer in quality, as by supplying desirable elements or ingredients. [ME enrich(n) < OF enrichi(r)

Enrichment 1. the act of enriching. 2. the state of being enriched. 3. something that enriches.

Advance 1. to bring or send forward. 2. to present for consideration, as an opinion. 3. to further the development or prospects of. 4. to promote, as to a higher rank. 5. to increase [a rate or figure]. 6. to accelerate. 7. to furnish or supply [money or goods] on credit. 8. Archaic. to raise [a banner, flag, etc.] -v.i. 9. to come or go forward. 10. to make progress or show improvement. 11. to increase in price, value, quantity, etc. -n. 12. a forward movement. 13. a noticeable progress or improvement. 14. a promotion, as in rank or status. 15. Usually, advances. a. attempts at forming an acquaintance, reaching an agreement, etc. made by one party. b. actions or words intended to be sexually inviting. 16. an increase in a rate or figure. 17. Com. a. sum of money or quantity of good furnished on credit. b. the act or furnishing this sum or quantity. c. the total number of sales, as of tickets to a play or of an item of merchandise...... [ME avaunce(n) < OF avanc(i)e(r) < VL *avanteár = LL abante away before.....] -Syn. 2. adduce, propound; offer. 3. forward, promote. 6. quicken, hasten, speed up. 7. loan. 9. advance, proceed imply movement forward. Advance applies to forward movement, esp. toward an objective: to advance to a platform. Proceed emphasizes movement, as from one place to another, and often implies continuing after a halt: to proceed on one's journey. 15. overture, proposal. -Ant. 1, 2, 9. withdraw. 9. retreat. 11. decrease.

Expand 1. to in crease in extent, size, volume, scope, etc. 2. to spread or stretch out; unfold. 3. to express in fuller form or greater detail; develop: to expand a short story into a novel. 4. Math. a. to write [a mathematical expression] so as to show the products of its factors. Cf. factor [def. 7]. b. to rewrite [a mathematical expression] as a sum, product, etc., of terms of a particular kind. -v.i. 5. to increase or grow in extent, bulk, scope, etc. 6. to spread out; unfold; develop. 7. to express more fully or in greater detail [usually fol. by on or upon]: Please expand on that statement. [late ME expande(n) < L expande(re) (to) spread out = ex- EX-1 + pandere to extend, stretch]. -Syn. 1. swell, enlarge, increase, Expand, dilate, distend, inflate imply becoming larger and filling more space. To expand is to spread out, usually in every direction, so as to occupy more space or have more capacity: to expand oneÍs chest. To dilate is esp. to increase the width or circumference, and applies to space enclosed within confines or to hollow bodies: to dilate the pupils of the eyes. To distend is to stretch, often beyond the point of natural expansion: to distend an artery. To inflate is to blow out or swell a hollow body with air or gas: to inflate a balloon.

Elaborate 1. worked out with great care and nicety of detail; executed with great minuteness. 2. marked by intricate and often excessive detail; complicated. -v.i. 3. to work out carefully or minutely: develop to perfection. 4. to produce or develop by labor. -v.i. 5. to add details in writing, speaking, etc.; give additional or fuller treatment [usually fl. by on or upon]: to elaborate upon a theme. [< L élabórat(us) (ptp. of élabóráre) worked out. See e-, LABOR, -ATE1]. -Syn.1. perfected, painstaking. 2. ornate, intricate. Elaborate, Labored, Studied apply to that which is worked out in great detail. That which is Elabaorate is characterized by great, sometimes even excessive, nicety or minuteness of detail: elaborate preparations for a banuet; an elaborate apology. That which is labored is marked by excessive, often forced or uninspired, effort: a labored explanation, style of writing. That which is studied is accomplished with care and deliberation, and is done purposely, sometimes even having been rehearsed: a studied pose. 3. 5. refine, improve. -Ant. 1. simple.

[Urdang, Laurence, ed. Random House Dictionary of The English Language. New York: Random House,1968.]



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