Notebook, 1993-



Expanse . . . .Where all objects are located and all events occur. . . . Unlimited, Indefinitely, Great, Three-Dimensional . . . . Distance, Portion, Extent in a given instance . . . . Area in two dimensions . . . . Designed and Structured surface of a picture . . . . Illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface . . . . Region beyond the earth's atmosphere containing the rest of the cosmos . . . . Seat, Berth, Room . . . . Linear Distance . . . . Defined Relations between objects. . . . Interval of time, A While . . . . Fix or divide space or spaces . . . . Set some Distance apart . . . . Separate, Extend, Position

R  E  F  E  R  E  N  C  E  S 
Space n. 1. the unlimited or indefinitely great three-dimensional expanse in which all material objects are located and all events occur. 2. the portion or extent of this in a given instance. 3. extent or area in two dimensions; a particular extent of surface. 4. Fine Arts. a. the designed and structured surface of a picture. b. the illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface. 5. the region beyond the earthÍs atmosphere containing the rest of the cosmos. 6. a seat, berth, or room on a train, airplane, etc. 7. a particular linear distance. 8. Math. a system of objects with relations between the objects defined. 9. extent, or a particular extent, of time. 10. an interval of time; a while. 11. an area or interval allowed for or taken by advertising, as in a periodical. 12. Music. the interval between two adjacent lines of the staff. 13. Print. a blank piece of metal used to separate words, sentences, etc. 14. Telegraphy. an interval during the transmitting of a message when the key is not in contact. -v.t. 15. to fix the space or spaces of; divide into spaces. 16. to set some distance apart. 17. Print., Writing. a. to separate [words, letters, or lines] by spaces. b. to extend by inserting more space or spaces [usually fol. by out ]. -adj. 18. of or pertaining to space or spaces: space design. 19. of, in, or pertaining to the regoin beyond the earth's atmosphere: a space shot. [ME < OF (e) space < L spatium.

Space-time 1. Also called space-time continuum. the four-dimensional continuum, having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate. 2. the physical reality that exists within this four-dimensional continuum. -adj. 3. of, pertaining to, or noting a system with three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate. 4. noting, pertaining to, or involving both space and time.

Spatiotemporal 1. pertaining to space-time. 2. of or pertaining to both space and time.

[Urdang, Laurence, ed. Random House Dictionary of The English Language. New York: Random House, 1968.]

The Painters Craft
Shade is descriptive of a degree of variation in color--for example, a lighter or darker shade of ink, a more reddish shade of purple. In any system of color gradation, a step in the scale may be called a shade. [Mayer, Ralph. The Painter's Craft. An Introduction to ArtistÍs Methods and Materials. Revised and updated by Steven Sheehan, Director of the Ralph Mayer Center, Yale University School of Art. New York: Penquin Group. 1948. 1991. p. 29]

Categories of space: Space in General; Dimensions; Structure-Form; Motion
Space in General


Structure, Form


[Roget's International Thesaurus, Third Edition. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1962.]

Definitions of Space
Two-Dimensional. Any line, moving in any direction, makes an obvious two-dimensional division of space vertically, horizontally, or diagonally.

Two-dimensional Design. Used to signify an involvement with figure-ground space in the graphic sense of impressing marks over a surface - Composing space on a flat surface using all the graphic experience already gained.

Three-Dimensional. Several lines together--or differing tones areas--create an illusion of three dimensionality, of space in depth.

Three-Dimensional Design. Indicates that the figure-ground problem is one in which real, environmental space is involved and becomes part of the piece, as in sculpture or architecture.

[Collier, Graham. Form, Space & Vision, An Introduction to Drawing and Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985.]

To Produce an Illusion of 3-D Space
Two most important factors which produce an illusion of three-dimensional space when lines, points, or areas of stain are drawn on an empty ground are:

    2) Directional movement in terms of horizontal, vertical, and diagonal inclination.

To these must be added two other factors which also play an important role in determining three-dimensionality:

    1) Placement of line, point, or area: the spatial implications that occur when the positions of top or bottom, left or right, and center are occupied by drawing marks.
    2) Quality of line, which is determined by:
      (a) weight: thickness or thinness, suggesting spread or bulk
      (b) tone value: range of tone from dark to light
      (c) constitution or build: dullness and indistinctness, edge diffusion and vagueness, or sharpness and clarity
[Collier, Graham. Form, Space & Vision, An Introduction to Drawing and Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985.]



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